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Left Coast Creative, Lake Michigans Left Coast

Left Coast Creative has attempted to identify geological and fossil specimens. Please contact the blogger if you can identify errors, have questions, or would like to see a different shot of a specimen or scene. Thanks so much.
Runaway Greenhouse Effect
The phenomenon occurs when a planet absorbs more energy from the sun than it can radiate back to space. Under these circumstances, the hotter the surface temperature gets, the faster it warms up. Scientists believe Venus experienced a global runaway greenhouse effect about 3 billion to 4 billion years ago.

American Museum of Natural History

Boosted by rain, Lake Michigan approaches 20-year high water level

Crowns, Byron. Wisconsin through 5 Billion Years of Change. Wisconsin Rapids, WI: Wisconsin Earth Science Center, 1976.

DAWN: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology

Devonian paleogeography. Map. Encyclopædia Britannica Online.

The Field Museum of Chicago

Geologic Timeline, Partial

Gould, Stephen Jay. Wonderful Life: The Burgess Shale and the Nature of History. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1989.

Grippo, Alessandro, Ph.D. Earth Sciences. Santa Monica, CA: Santa Monica College, Department of Earth Science.

Hazen, Robert M. The Story of Earth. New York: Penguin Group, 2012.

International Commission on Stratigraphy,, International Chronostratigraphic Chart v2016/10

Kirby, Jacqueline, M.S. Single-Parent Families in Poverty, Ohio State University

Lynch, Dan R., and Lynch, Bob. Rocks and Minerals: Wisconsin, Illinois, Iowa. Cambridge, MN: Adventure Publications, 2015.

MHUGL: Military History of the Upper Great Lakes

The Mineral Database

Mirto, Kathi L., aka Fossillady

Mueller, Bruce, and Gauthier, Kevin. Lake Michigan Rock Picker’s Guide. United States: Bruce Mueller and Kevin Gauthier, 2006.

National Women’s Law Center: Data on Poverty and Income

The Paleontology Portal

Pellant, Chris. Smithsonian Handbooks: Rocks and Minerals. London: Dorling Kindersley Limited, 2002.

Royal Society of Chemistry’s Periodic Table

Silicate Minerals

SLATE: American Boys at a Nazi Summer Camp

Stinchcomb, Bruce L. Meteorites. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd, 2011.

Stinchcomb, Bruce L. More Paleozoic Fossils. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd, 2012.

Stinchcomb, Bruce L. Paleozoic Fossil Plants. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd, 2013.

Stinchcomb, Bruce L. Paleozoic Fossils. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd, 2008.

Stinchcomb, Bruce L. World’s Oldest Fossils. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Publishing, Ltd, 2007.

Tiktaalik roseae

University of California Museum of Paleontology

University of California Museum of Paleontology: Understanding Evolution
The Virtual Fossil Museum


Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources

Wisconsin Geological & Natural History Survey, Milwaukee Public Radio Friday on Lake Effect: Nazi March on Grafton


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