Extinction is Forever

Lake Michigan's Left Coast reveals Paleozoic limestone and dolomite dating to the Devonian Period (420–350 million years ago). Abundant in rocks from the Paleozoic are fossilized brachiopods, marine animals with upper and lower hard shells hinged at the rear. Though they first appear in rocks dating to the early Cambrian Period (540–485 million years ago), brachiopods reached... Continue Reading →



Chert is a sedimentary rock made almost entirely of quartz crystals. In the Great Lakes region of North America, chert forms as veins in limestone or as layers between other sedimentary rocks. Chert is very hard, so any fossils that formed in or of chert may be less eroded than those softer rock, like limestone.... Continue Reading →

Hurricane Sandy 5th Anniversary

It is the fifth anniversary of Hurricane Sandy, the superstorm that hit the East Coast in late October, 2012. The storm was visible in the sky in Chicago, and that city's Lake Michigan shoreline witnessed 23-foot waves. In terms of preventing storm surges from devastating places like New York City, nothing much has changed. More... Continue Reading →

A Hot, Dry September 2017 in Wisconsin

The United States was warmer and drier than average in September 2017; the year has been the third–warmest and –wettest year to date. In Wisconsin, the first day of Autumn, September 22, was the hottest day of the year, topping off at 95 degrees Fahrenheit. A field of corn at a Wisconsin farm, October 2017,... Continue Reading →

News from NOAA Is Not Good

The USA experiences a warmer and drier than average September in 2017, which is the third–warmest and –wettest year in recorded history. USA warmer and drier than normal NOAA Assesses National Climate in September 2017

95 Degrees on First Day of Fall

September 22, 2017 was the first day of Autumn. In Milwaukee, Wisconsin, it was also the hottest day of year. The temperature reached 95 degrees, beating the date's record of 92 set in 1937. Late summer was very dry in 2017, just like 2016. © 2017 Elizabeth G Fagan

Lake Michigan at 20-Year High

The Devonian Period (419.2–358.9 million years ago) jawless fish Cardipeltis has been found in Utah and Wyoming. This fossil is from Lake Michigan's Left Coast in the Great Lakes region. Is it the jawless fish? A hunk of fossilized mud? Along this beach in southeastern Wisconsin, Lake Michigan has been eating away at beaches at... Continue Reading →

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